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About the time that the continents began to grow and began, Earth produced its first known glaciers, between 3.0 and 2.9 bya, although the full extent is unknown. It might have been an ice age or merely some mountain glaciation. The , and numerous competing hypotheses try to explain what produced them. Because the evidence is relatively thin, there is also controversy about the extent of Earth's ice ages. About 2.5 bya, the Sun was probably a little smaller and only about as bright as it is today, and Earth would have been a block of ice if not for the atmosphere’s carbon dioxide and methane that absorbed electromagnetic radiation, particularly in the . But life may well have been involved, particularly oxygenic photosynthesis, and it was almost certainly involved in Earth's first great ice age, which may have been a episode, and some pertinent dynamics follow.
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In 1750, only 5% of England’s pig iron was produced with coke, but by 1800, with and the continuing rising price of charcoal, British pig iron production was 150,000-200,000 metric tons annually, and almost all was coke-smelted. It was ten times greater than annual production in the 18th century’s first half, and the steep ascent began in the 1770s. In the first decade of the 19th century, it doubled again. During the 18th century, British coal production increased five-fold, to more than 15 million metric tons, and it doubled again by 1830. It took ten times its weight in fuel to produce ten tons of iron, and twenty times for copper. One reason for iron’s relative “cheapness,” energy-wise, is that life processes into oxides. In 1900, the British produced five million tons of pig iron annually, the USA produced twice as much, and Germany produced more than six million tons. In 2011, the UK produced only seven million tons of pig iron, China produced nearly a hundred times as much, and , which was several thousand times what England, the early leader in industrialization, produced two centuries earlier. In 2008, global coal production was estimated at 5.8 billion metric tons, which was nearly 400 times what the UK mined in 1800.
Frankly speaking, I can hardly say that I was a perfect student but, nonetheless, I get used to work hard and achieve positive results in my education. At the same time, I should to confess that I did not really like disciplines that are not directly linked to my future job, but it did not prevent me from being successful enough to get my bachelors which, as I supposed, should be the basis of my further professional development and help in my future career. In fact, I clearly realize the importance of education in the modern world which constantly progress and, as a software engineer, I perfectly know the extent to which technology progress and this progress is extremely rapid so I need to continue my education to keep pace with the dynamically progressing technologies.
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Today, industrialized humanity is almost wholly dependent on the energy provided by hydrocarbon fuels that were created by , and humanity is mining and burning those hydrocarbon deposits about a million times as fast as they were created. We are reaching but, more importantly, we have already discovered all of the . We are currently seeking and mining Earth’s remaining hydrocarbon deposits, which are of poor energetic quality. It is merely the latest instance of humanity's depleting its energy resources, in which the dregs were mined after the easily acquired energy was consumed. The created the energy crisis that led to , and the led to , and attracted my fellow travelers and me to alternative energy. However, far more often over the course of the human journey, depleting energy resources led to and even local extinctions of humans in remote locations. Expanding and collapsing populations have characterized rising and falling polities during the past several thousand years, ever since the .
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The human evolutionary line’s brain . About two million years later, the human line evolved to the point where behaviorally modern humans appeared, , and conquered all inhabitable continents. Their expansion was fueled by . That was also the beginning of the . After all the easy meat was extinct and the brief Golden Age of the Hunter-Gatherer ended, population pressures led to the : domesticating plants and animals. That event led to civilization, and many features of the human journey often argued to be human nature, such as and the , were merely artifacts of the energy regime and societal structure of agrarian civilizations. Early civilizations were never stable; their energy practices were largely based on and , and such due to their unsustainable energy production methods.
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Today, humanity dominates Earth and is not only depleting its primary energy resources at prodigious rates, but it is also that rivals the . Humans may cause Earth’s greatest mass extinction, which may take humanity with it. Today, , and almost nobody seems to know or care. Humanity is a tunnel-visioned, egocentric species, and almost all people are only concerned about their immediate self-interest and are oblivious of what lies ahead. Not all humans are so blind, and and , among others intimately familiar with the impacts of global civilization, are terrified by what humanity is inflicting onto Earth. Also, those who realize that we are quickly coming to the Hydrocarbon Age’s end are and I cannot blame them. We are in a “” scenario, and several manmade trends threaten our future existence.