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Race Philosophy Science and civilization Science Social aspects: Categories ..

The Philosophy of Social Science

The derision was loud from Wrangham’s colleagues…until evidence of was found at in South Africa by using new tools and techniques. The chortling is subsiding somewhat and scientists are now looking for the faint evidence, and long-disputed evidence of 1.5-1.7 mya controlled fires is being reconsidered, although his hypothesis is still widely considered as being only "mildly compelling" at best. New tools may push back the control of fire to a time that matches Wrangham’s audacious hypothesis. Wrangham cited the Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis as partially supporting the Cooking Hypothesis, but , the energy to power the human brain may not have solely derived from cooked food’s energy benefits. Wrangham has cited numerous lines of evidence, one of which is a that has to find honeybee hives and smoke them out; the humans get the honey and the honeyguide gets the larvae and wax. According to recent molecular evidence, the evolutionary split of the honeyguide from its ancestors happened up to three mya, which supports the early-control-of-fire hypothesis. There is great controversy regarding these subjects, from recent findings that to scientists making arguments that to the social impacts of campfires. This section of this essay will probably be one of the first to be revised in future versions, as new evidence is adduced and new hypotheses are proposed.

While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, ..

Race (human categorization) - Wikipedia

Some scientists treat every proboscidean extinction as a unique mystery, unrelated to other proboscidean extinctions, and climate and resulting vegetation changes are hypothesized as agents of extinction (or other causes invoked), when the most probable cause stares at them each morning in the mirror. The devil in the details, but regarding the megafauna extinctions, some specialists cannot seem to discern a very clear pattern. Scientists, because they are human, have an inherent conflict of interest when attributing such catastrophes to non-human causes. During the remainder of this essay, it will become evident that there is a human penchant for absolving one’s in-group of responsibility for catastrophes and crimes committed against the out-group, and , scientists, and other professionals regularly engage in such interest-conflicted acts, whether they were defending their species, race, gender, nation, class, ideology, ethnicity, or profession. That in-group/out-group difference in treatment has a long history and probably goes back to the beginnings of territorial social animals.

Racism and discrimination are wrong as a matter of principle, not of science

published in 1991, which noted traits found among all human societies. That book was published more than a decade and before scientists amassed the genetic evidence that traced the human lineage to those . Those universal human features were almost certainly possessed by that founder population. The primary traits of “the Universal People” (“”) are listed at . Some less-than-universal traits are not on that list, such as women terminating unwanted pregnancies, killing unwanted children, and capital punishment, but were close to universal. That may mean that some societies discarded those behaviors over time or that most adopted them later; the former situation seems more likely.

The philosophy of social science can be described broadly as having two aims

Bibliography of Social Science History ..

Female simians usually stay within their society of origin, while males leave. That is how simians prevented , but that pattern is reversed in chimpanzee and gorilla societies, in which females usually leave. Sexual coercion of females is common behavior among simians. and are among the few simians that overcame it, and it seems to have been due to ecological dynamics. Humans have partially discarded that behavior during the industrial age. Those are obviously highly charged areas of behavioral research, and is a scientific discipline. A is arguably the of science, and behavioral sciences have often been plagued with a lack of them, going back to , which has caused some to say that psychology is not really a science. This essay will soon sail into some of those murky waters.

Social Science Dictionary with a Durkheim bias

In 508 BCE, Athens entered its classical period, which lasted for nearly two centuries. In those two centuries, so much was invented by Greek philosophers and proto-scientists that it has been studied by scholars for thousands of years. One provocative question that scholars have posed is why the Industrial Revolution did not begin with the Greeks. The answer seems to be along the lines of Classic Greeks not having the social organization or sufficient history of technological innovation before wars and environmental destruction ended the Greek experiment. The achievements of Greece over the millennium of their intellectual fecundity are far too many to explore in this essay, but briefly, the Greeks invented: , , , the , a monetized economy, thought, such as , while developing other branches to unprecedented sophistication, and , which included the idea that . Long after the Classic Greek period was over, Hellenic intellectuals and inventors kept making innovations that had major impacts on later civilizations, such as Heron of Alexandria (or some other Greeks) inventing the and .