April 5-6, 2017 Washington D.C.

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Significant Energy Events in Earth's and Life's History as of 2014

Early primate migrations and extinctions led to a disjointed geographical distribution, as they could only live in tropical canopies. When tropical forests shrank in the cooling conditions that led to the current ice age, primates such as tarsiers found themselves in isolated refugia. In the late Eocene and late Miocene, when tropical canopies disappeared, the primate lines inhabiting them went extinct unless they used an escape route to a surviving tropical forest.

Below is a diagram of two hydrogen atoms before and after reaction, as they bond to form H2.

c. 4.6 billion years ago (“bya”)

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Those energy and chemistry concepts should make this essay easier to digest.

Furthermore, the company that invented the Moleskin consistently reports double-digit sales growth, according to a recent NPR . In the story, the CEO of the Moleskin company is quoted as saying that perhaps it is because digital technology has become so commonplace that paper holds such fascination. He goes on to add that there is an intimacy to a tangible, physical artifact that digital publishing cannot quite deliver.

Organisms begin to capture chemical energy.


c. 850-420 million years ago ("mya")

However, Young may have misunderstood Roosevelt's perspective on labor issues. As Roosevelt wrote to one of his most trusted advisors, Harvard Law School Professor Felix Frankfurter, in August 1934, his long-term goal was to salvage the National Industrial Recovery Act's provisions for "(1) minimum wage, (2) maximum hours, (3) collective bargaining and (4) child labor," which would require legislation that could pass muster with a Supreme Court dominated by eight former corporate lawyers (four ultraconservatives, two moderate conservatives who provided the swing votes, and two liberals); Frankfurter then passed this information along to Justice Louis Brandeis, one of the two liberals, in a handwritten note (Davis 1986, p. 517).

First large-scale energy users.

Moreover, the new board proved to be more formidable than Young expected, in part because its new chair, Garrison, the corporate lawyer quoted earlier, who was at the time the dean of the University of Wisconsin Law School, took the board in a more legalistic direction. In the process he prepared it to become a mini-Supreme Court for labor law. With the aid of two equally competent board members and a staff of excellent young lawyers, some of whom were former law school professors, others fresh out of law school, he began to create the "common law" on labor issues that would provide the basis for a stronger version of the National Labor Relations Act in early 1935. When Garrison resigned after several months to return to the University of Wisconsin, he was replaced by Biddle, even more experienced and liberal, whose firm boasted the Pennsylvania Railroad as its most prominent client among several blue-chip corporations (Bernstein 1969, pp. 318-319; Biddle 1962).

First complex ecosystems appear.

It was at this point that Industrial Relations Counselors began printing a brief Memorandum to Clients, which updated a wide range of industrial relations executives, primarily in the Special Conference Committee and the many companies related to Rockefeller interests, but also a few others as well, such as Sun Oil and Union Carbide, on unfolding events in Washington relating to labor relations, unemployment insurance, and old-age pensions. This memorandum, which appeared on an as-necessary basis, provides us with a new window into the perspectives of corporate moderates during these years. So here's another source of new evidence that might make it possible for scholars to rethink their past conclusions on business involvement in labor legislation (Kaufman 2003, was the first to make use of these memorandums and kindly provided copies of them). Generally speaking, the memorandums are very circumspect in discussing labor issues, but they prove that IRC employees kept a close eye on the personnel, inner workings, and decisions of the new labor board. (As shown in the document on "How Corporate Moderates Created the Social Security Act," the memorandums are much more revealing of insider information on the Social Security Act, which the IRC openly supported and on which it could provide considerable detail because its employees were involved in writing it.)