The origin of great debaters essay ..
The of an ice age is only a few hundred years old, and was , who got his first ideas from and others. There had also been . By the 1860s, most geologists accepted the idea that there had been a cold period in Earth’s recent past, attended by advancing and retreating ice sheets, but nobody really knew why. Hypotheses began to proliferate, and in the 1870s, proposed the idea that variations in Earth’s orientation to the Sun caused the continental ice sheets. Because of problems in matching his hypothesis with dates adduced for ice age events, it fell out of favor and was considered dead by 1900. Croll’s work regained its relevance with the publication of a paper by (usually spelled Milankovitch in the West) in 1913, and by 1924, Milankovitch was widely known for explaining the timing of advancing and retreating ice sheets during the current ice age.
Heidegger the origin of art essay
In today’s hunter-gatherer societies, the EROI for killing large animals dwarfs all other food sources. The EROI, of calories produced divided by those burned during the hours of labor invested, for large game (a deer, for example), is more than 100, and on average four times that of small game, fifteen times that of birds, about eight times that of roots and tubers, and 10-15 times that of seeds and nuts. The hunter-gatherer EROI for seeds, nuts, and birds is around ten-to-one. An average-sized adult African elephant carcass provides about 13 million calories, which would sustain a band of 12 people for a year if they could eat it all before it rotted and did not die of protein poisoning. The EROI for those easily killed proboscideans when humans invaded the Western Hemisphere could have been in the hundreds and even more than one thousand. Large animals have always been the mother lode of hunter-gatherer peoples, and the consensus among anthropologists is that no instincts urge a hunter to kill only what is needed, but a hunter will kill whatever he can. That finding partly derives from studying modern hunter-gatherers. There is no doubt that when early humans intruded into environments that never before encountered humans, where animals would have had no intrinsic fear of humans, people would have had an exceptionally easy time killing all large animals encountered. Animals without experience around humans, such as Antarctic penguins, are easily approached and killed. As happened innumerable times in the historical era, intruding humans killed all the naïve animals that they could. The only animals that survived developed a healthy fear of humans and avoided them, but how many could develop that fear before they were all killed? From the very beginning of the , . More than 500 million years later, a new kind of animal appeared that turned that advantage into a fatal disadvantage, as it found a way to mine that energy stored in large animals, and it quickly plundered it to exhaustion whenever it could.
Orangutans are the most arboreal great ape, and in Africa the great apes had definitely left the trees as their daytime residence, although they slept in trees to avoid predators. Gorillas can primarily subsist on leafy vegetation, although the staple of the , which is the most prevalent gorilla species, . . Gorillas usually have a smaller daily range than chimpanzees have and live in the heart of rainforests; what became chimpanzees were probably pushed to the margins by their larger cousins and live more along a rainforest’s woodland fringes. They have to range relatively far to find their staple: . Since their diet is more diverse and they can survive in more varied environments, the chimpanzees’ range is than that of . Like the largest quadrupedal herbivores, gorillas ingest a great deal of low-calorie vegetation each day and are that extract energy from cellulose, which humans cannot do. Chimpanzees are also hindgut fermenters. As with all organisms, the ecological situation of great apes influenced their evolution, including social organization and behaviors. This has been increasingly studied since the 19th century and has provided valuable insights into humanity, some of which follow.
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Eventually I hit on something suitably paranoid, and yet which would tie together all three books, and Origin was born.In the course of the books, as usually happens for me, spin-off ideas and sidebars became pieces in their own right; these included my stories 'People Came From Earth' and 'The Gravity Mine'.So there it is: much reworking of ideas, a general deepening and broadening of thought, and probably a nightmare for bibliographers.Creative writing isn't a particularly linear process.
No Origin | practice theories of theory and practice
The day after I arrived in Boston, we began to pursue what is today called free energy, or new energy, which is abundant and harmlessly produced energy generated with almost no operating cost. Today's so-called free energy is usually generated by harnessing the , but not always, and our original effort was trying to harness it. We attracted the interest of a legendary and shadowy group while we were in Boston. . I have called that group the and others have . However, they are not the focus of my writings and efforts. I regard them as a , not a cause. Our fate is in hands, not theirs. Our efforts also caused and attracted . They were probably trying to protect their economic turf and were not consciously acting on the Global Controllers’ behalf, which was probably also the case in Seattle.