As the Fenwicks point out, if OBEs and NDEs are hallucinations,

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Veridical Paranormal Perception During OBEs?

In one case, after being attacked by a lioness protecting her cubs, a 60 year old truck driver reported that a highway opened up for him going endlessly into the sky, surrounded by stars; when he tried to go on to the highway, the stars blocked his way, and he stood there until the highway and stars disappeared (Morse and Perry, "Transformed" 122).

Rodabough explains how unintentional interviewer feedback can contaminate NDE reports:

Greyson offers a related argument:

Claims that near-death experiences are always identical, regardless of the set and setting, are contradicted by the variety actually found in published reports. They differ between people and cultures. For example, instead of a tunnel and angels, East Indians may describe the River Ganges and a particular guru. A child having a NDE may "see" his or her still-living friends and teachers, or Nintendo and comic book characters, rather than God (Jansen 96).

What Are Out-of-Body Experiences?

Cases where NDErs' predictions have failed to come to pass suggest thatexperiencers have not attempted to demonstrate their psychic powers experimentally because they have no powers to demonstrate. Apparently NDErs' predictions are no different than those of other modern-day prophets—either vague enough to cover almost any event, or specific but unfulfilled.

Given such stark phenomenological differences, Murphy concludes:


Ultimately, even the Fenwicks concede this:

The more I concentrated on this source of light the more I realized that it was a light of a very, very peculiar nature... it was more than light. It was a grid of power... if you could imagine the finest kind of gossamer spider web that was somehow all pervading, that went everywhere [ellipses original] (Lindley, Bryan, and Conley 111).

Who Makes the Decision to Return?

After a heart attack, one man from the Evergreen Study had an NDE that included seeing a lattice ('grid') or cobweb, one of Klüver's form constants:

Groth-Marnat, Gary. "." . No. 19 (1994): 7-11.

, suggesting a similar physiological process underlying hallucinations with different triggers. But what is particularly interesting is that Klüver's form constants also appear in near-death experiences.

Abanes, Richard. . Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1996.

Other form constants have also periodically appeared in NDEs. Zaleski notes that, among the variety of 'paths' that NDErs have taken to the NDE world, some NDErs have found themselves "spinning in vertiginous spirals" rather than traveling through a tunnel or darkness (Zaleski, "Otherworldly" 122). While tunnel experiences are well-represented in Western NDE reports, the occasional presence of other hallucinatory form constants in these reports (e.g., lattices, cobwebs, and spirals) suggests that NDEs are hallucinations.

Abramovitch, Henry. "." . Vol. 6, No. 3 (Spring 1988): 175-184.

(16) In 1926 Heinrich Klüver systematically studied the effects of mescaline (peyote) on the subjective experiences of its users. In addition to producing potent hallucinations characterized by bright, 'highly saturated' colors and vivid imagery, Klüver noticed that mescaline produced in different users. He called these patterns '' and categorized four types: lattices (including honeycombs, checkerboards, and triangles), cobwebs, tunnels, and spirals (Blackmore, "Dying" 68-70; Bressloff et al. 474).