Gene Therapy Lab Report Essay - 2285 Words
The potential dangers of gene therapy are assessed with a clear consideration of the ethical dilemmas posed.
• A range of suitable examples are used to support the discussion,Criterion B: Communication in science
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Moral and Ethical Issues in Gene Therapy Essay - 5753 …
The treatment, which was first tested in humans in 1990, can be performed inside or outside of the body. When it’s done inside the body, doctors may inject the virus carrying the gene in question directly into the part of the body that has defective cells. This is useful when only certain populations of cells need to be “fixed.” For example, researchers are using it to try to treat Parkinson's disease, because only part of the brain must be targeted. This approach is also being used to treat eye diseases and hemophilia, an inherited disease that leads to a high risk for excess bleeding, even from minor cuts.
Early in-the-body gene therapies used a virus called adenovirus—the virus behind the common cold—but the agent from the body, putting a patient at risk of further illness. Today, researchers use a virus called adeno-associated virus, which is not known to cause any disease in humans. In nature, this agent needs to hitch a ride with an adenovirus, because it lacks the genes required to spread itself on its own. To produce an adeno-associated virus that can carry a therapeutic gene and live on its own, researchers add innocuous DNA from adenovirus during preparation.
In-the-body gene therapies often take advantage of the natural tendency of viruses to infect certain organs. Adeno-associated virus, for example, goes straight for the liver when it is injected into the bloodstream. Because blood-clotting factors can be added to the blood in the liver, this virus is used in gene therapies to treat hemophilia.
In out-of-the-body gene therapy, researchers take blood or bone marrow from a patient and separate out immature cells. They then add a gene to those cells and inject them into the bloodstream of the patient; the cells travel to the bone marrow, mature and multiply rapidly, eventually replacing all of the defective cells. Doctors are working on the ability to do out-of-the-body gene therapy to replace all of a patient's bone marrow or the entire blood system, as would be useful in sickle-cell anemia—in which red blood cells are shaped like crescents, causing them to block the flow of blood.
Out-of-the-body gene therapy has already been used to treat severe combined immunodeficiency—also referred to as SCID or boy-in-the-bubble syndrome—where patients are unable to fight infection and die in childhood. In this type of gene therapy, scientists use retroviruses, of which HIV is an example. These agents are extremely good at inserting their genes into the DNA of host cells. More than 30 patients have been treated for SCID, and more than 90 percent of those children have been cured of their disorder—an improvement over the 50 percent chance of recovery offered by bone marrow transplants.
A risk involved with retroviruses is that they may stitch their gene anywhere into DNA, disrupting other genes and causing leukemia. Unfortunately, five of the 30 children treated for SCID have experienced this complication; four of those five, however, have beaten the cancer. Researchers are now designing delivery systems that will carry a much lower risk of causing this condition.
Although there are currently no gene therapy products on the market in the U.S., recent studies in both and Leber congenital amaurosis, a rare form of blindness, have returned very promising results. , there could be literally hundreds of diseases treated with this approach.
Bacteriophage T4 as a computer-generated image, generated by the master of phage graphics himself, Steven McQuinn.The primary task is the of , production of new , and the of those from the . For that consists of , which is the destruction of the outer portion of the so that the () that form inside of the can reach the outside (surfaces) of new to . This can be viewed as a form of , that is, is one means of converting into which are then available to other , where these other to a large extent consist of other . Alternatively, , in a process called , can fail to a , following , but instead carry new into that , in some cases converting otherwise into potential . Ongoingly, all around us, and even inside of , affect in ways that can have profound effects on the world around .
play important roles in the and of . In fact, probably wouldn't be , at least as they exist today, without moving their among themselves (-mediated ) or -mediated diversification of their ( for more diverse -encoded anti- mechanisms along with the elimination of too successful , i.e., so-called "").
Much of what goes on between and , however, represents something of an background, that is, it is simply what happens out there in the . Alternatively, the ability of to move around, as noted, can give rise to , and indeed a number of actually encode which can make us , including the (actually "") associated with the responsible for , , and even , the so-called . The term "" in its original popularization in fact was short for "anti- " where is the of – that is, the without this will not cause – but, in fact, is a from a .
Given this apparent infamy, can we still speak of as, well, good? The answer seems to in fact be yes for at least four . First, on both underlies and continues to provide important tools for the analysis of , a key component of modern (think ). Second, play important roles in the monitoring of , especially by serving as for , both as and as models for especially in association with . Third, have and continue to play important roles in the , , characterization, and detection of especially . Lastly, are capable of killing both nuisance and , in the guise of so-called . I close this essay with a discussion focusing on the latter.
is the application of that can kill to reduce in number or eliminate those . has at least four advantages over conventional therapy . First, relatively rare encoding of aside, are inherently safe, consisting of just benign and , and therefore display a larger , the difference between their and their . , typically described as an , instead displays a very small , meaning that, unlike with , it is relatively difficult to avoid adverse effects.
Second, are fairly in their , meaning that with treatment it is possible to kill while avoiding the harming of , that is, our good . Because of this , with treatment are must less likely (contrast -associated "" or ), plus may be employed with little fear of adversely affecting .
The third advantage of is that they often are capable of to higher densities , that is, within their target , such as . This may allow to penetrate further into , such as those which have formed . It also eases dosing concerns, as above, though in the other direction, that is, in addition to delivering too high being less of a concern (in comparison to many ), in fact delivering too low , at least under certain circumstances, also can be less of a concern since reaching will tend to . This produces locally high densities of which, in turn, can lead to demise.
Fourth, and finally, are hugely numerous and hugely . Therefore the "discovery" of novel with novel activities (especially novel ) is very simple, often involving little more than a short trip down to a local for a sampling of untreated (don't worry, not only is this a standard procedure in , but the are fully separated from the rest of the components of well before they are turned into a product). With modern technology along with (the analysis of the of ) even full characterization can be a relatively trivial endeavor.
are natural, , in most circumstances harmless, and relatively easy to thoroughly characterize. They have the useful property of being able to kill that we don't like or want, plus have been used in this regard for going on one-hundred years. With the potential to become a technology of resort in the humanity's ongoing battle against , it is just a matter of time before the term "" becomes a household word.