Tools of the Trade: Subjects and Verbs

If the question is about technique, talk about how it affects the others-one per paragraph.

The Classical Hollywood Cinema Twenty-Five Years Along

Janet spent the rest of 1979 and the calendar year 1980at her home in Cleveland doing research and writing. David and Kristin bouncedaround more. They were in New York City, where David taught at NYU, during thefall of 1979. After returning to Madison in the spring of 1980, they went toLos Angeles for a long stretch of the summer (enjoying the unstinting hospitalityof Ed Branigan and Roberta Kimmel). Fall and spring 1980–1981 they were teachingat the University of Iowa.

David Bordwell, Janet Staiger, and Kristin Thompson

In General, Avoid the Swamp of Published Criticism

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AERLINN(Sindarin, aer+ lin, "ocean-song," sometimes spelled aerlin): As part of his , Tolkien sought to fill out his imaginary words with complete histories, mythologies, and poetic traditions. Accordingly, he invented the aerlinn, an imaginary genre of Elvish poetry that Tolkien devised to be background for The Lord of the Rings. Aerlinns are with a seven-line stanza-structure rhyming aababcc. The form may be loosely inspired by the seven-line stanza invented by Chaucer in the fourteenth century that later came into its own as . The aerlinn's conventional theme would be a or an , usually to Elbereth or another of the . Tolkien's etymology for the word aerlinn connects the idea of holiness with the ocean. In his , the potentially immortal Elves eventually suffer a sea-longing. They feel a compulsion that calls them to sail over the western sea to join the Valar and leave behind the world of men. Below is a sample aerlinn in Elvish from the end of chapter one, "Merry Meetings," in The Two Towers:

ACYROLOGIA: Also called acyrology, see discussion under .

It’s important to realize what The Classical Hollywood Cinema isnot and never tried to be. Perhaps the most common strain of criticism was thatit didn’t take into account other things.

ADAGE: A proverb or wise saying.

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ADAGY: The act of speaking or writing in adages.

AESOPIC LANGUAGE: In Russian criticism, the name for oppositional political writing hidden in circumlocution, fables, and vague references so that it can bypass official censorship (Harkins 1). The term refers to Aesop's Fabula, a collection of beast fables in which simple stories about animals contained morals or messages "between the lines," so to speak. The coinage of the term comes from Saltykov, who is both the first to use the term in this sense and the one whom many modern Russian critics consider the best example of such writings (Harkins 1).

And we did it all on note cards and typewriters.

AESTHETICISM: (1) In general, any literary movement that encourages critical or artistic focus on the experience of beauty rather than focuses on didactic messages or seeking truth. (2) More specifically, a Victorian literary movement in the 19th Century spearheaded by Walter Pater. Pater believed the goal of art was to make those experiencing it live their lives more intensely and encourage the pursuit of beauty.

Linguists more generally call this device "form shift."

Why did we not do a full-blown comparative study, situating Hollywood inrelation to other national cinema traditions? There is a seriousmethodological point here. How, after all, can you be sure that the featuresof technique or narrative that you’re picking out distinguish Hollywood?Perhaps we find the same features in French or Brazilian films. The reply isthat we did rely on our intuitive experience with other traditions to come upwith some broad contrasts with other modes of filmmaking (e.g., Soviet montagecinema, contemporary art cinema). Moreover, especially in the pre-video era,a systematic and fairly comprehensive cross-national study of this sort wasn’tpractical. Kristin and I have gone on to try to trace alternative styles, butfilm studies is still very far from a complete comparative study of aesthetictraditions in international popular cinema. That is largely because most scholarsdo not pursue analysis of form and style.