Changes in the Land Essay - 742 Words - StudyMode
With respect to surface-water rights, Texas is one of several dual-doctrine states that recognize both riparian and prior-appropriation doctrines, which are dissimilar in almost every respect. The riparian doctrine, which accords water rights to those who own riparian land, was introduced into Texas over 200 years ago during the Spanish settlement of San Antonio. Hispanic legal principles and practices were continued essentially unchanged by the Mexican government after 1821 and later by the until 1840. Extensive tracts of land with appurtenant water rights were granted by these governments in Texas, and today title to about twenty-six million acres, one-seventh of the state, can be traced to these sources. For many years Texas courts, water agencies, and water users assumed that Hispanic and pre-1840 republic land grants carried extensive riparian rights, including the right to take water from streams for irrigation, a principle with which the Texas Supreme Court agreed in the landmark case Motl v. Boyd (1926). However, in the 1950s, construction of on the Rio Grande prompted a reexamination of Hispanic water law, and it was determined in State v. Valmont Plantations (1961) that rights to water for and other major uses did not accrue from these grants unless expressly mentioned. Only a few specific grants of irrigation rights were made.
"Changes In The Land" By Cronon Review Essay - 813 Words
Advancements in transportation beginning in the 1820s rapidly removed the geographic obstacles that had slowed Lewis, Clark, and other explorers as they traveled west. These changes facilitated the movement of commodities and information, as well as people. Shorter travel times allowed manufacturers in the North and Northeast to sell products to a wider market and to do so less expensively. Creating a phenomenon known as the "market revolution," canals, steamboats, and railroads across the landscape formed new connections for production, trade, and national unity.
While not part of the original thirteen colonies, the western territories nonetheless played a prominent and early role in the birth of the United States. The geography and vast lands to the west provided irresistible economic opportunities in agricultural settlement, trade, and commerce. The territories would also test the nation's political unity as different economic and social systems, exemplified by slavery or "free labor," competed for dominance in the new lands and exacerbated the sectional tensions that would lead to the Civil War. Supported and justified through the ideas embodied in "Manifest Destiny," territorial expansion had drastic and long-lasting social consequences that forever changed the lives of the region's original and new inhabitants.