The religion of Islam - Religious Tolerance: Islam
Any concrete use of the concept of toleration is always situated inparticular contexts of normative and political conflict, especially insocieties that are transforming towards increased religious, ethicaland cultural pluralism – even more so when societies are markedby an increased awareness of such pluralism, with some cultural groupsraising new claims for recognition and others looking at theirco-citizens with suspicion, despite having lived together for sometime in the past. These social conflicts always involve group-basedclaims for recognition, both in the legal and in the social sphere(see generally Patten 2014, Galeotti 2002). Contemporary debate hasfocused on questions of respecting particular religious practices andbeliefs, ranging from certain manners of dress, including the burka,to certain demands to be free from blasphemy and religious insults(Laborde 2008, Newey 2013, Nussbaum 2012, Leiter 2014, Taylor andStepan 2014, Modood 2013, Forst 2013, ch. 12). The general questionsraised here include: What is special about religious as opposed toother cultural identities (Laborde and Bardon 2017)? When is equalrespect called for and what exactly does it imply with respect to, forexample, norms of gender equality (see Okin et al. 1999, Song 2007)?What role do past injustices play in weighing claims for recognition,and how much room can there be for autonomous forms of life in adeeply pluralistic society (Tully 1995, Williams 2000)?
Voltaire: Treatise on Tolerance - Constitution Society
Thinkers of the French Enlightenment argued for toleration on variousgrounds and, as in Bodin, there was a difference between a focus onpolitical stability and a focus on religious coexistence. In hisOn the Spirit of the Laws (1748), Montesquieu argues for thetoleration of different religions for the purpose of preservingpolitical unity and peace, yet he warns that there is a limit to theacceptance of new religions or changes to the dominant one, given theconnection between a constitution and the morality and habits of apeople. In his Persian Letters (1721), however, he haddeveloped a more comprehensive theory of religious pluralism. Thedifference between the two perspectives—political andinter-religious—is even more notable in Jean-JacquesRousseau’s writings. In his Social Contract (1762), hetries to overcome religious strife and intolerance byinstitutionalizing a “civic religion” that must be sharedby all, while in his Emile (1762) he argues for the primacyof individual conscience as well as for the aim of a non-dogmatic“natural religion.”
We believe, further, that such laws are contrary to the spirit of tolerance and diversity embodied in our Constitution" . he ACLU says its primary legal opposition to English Only laws is that they are inconsistent with the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.