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Although many traits that led to human dominance of Earth can be discerned in our distant ancestors, a pile of baggage came along with them. All great ape societies but bonobos are male dominated, and the most marginal when his society is attacked. The traits almost always arose from economic costs and benefits, which were always rooted in energy. How , also called pygmy chimpanzees, became the only great ape species that is not male-dominated is primarily an economic tale.

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Were the dramatic changes in a result of cooked food, or was Turkana Boy as his species became hunters instead of hunted, and the stone tools softened up the meat and plant foods so that he did not need to chew as much? Wrangham co-authored a that began with . It concluded that food processing, cooking in particular, accounted for the effect. Cooked food versus raw food and the number of neurons that can be supported in a brain has been . The primary reason why Wrangham’s hypothesis was initially dismissed was that archeological evidence for fires that long ago is almost nonexistent. When was published, the earliest evidence with wide acceptance only supported fires , where Israel is today, which is more than a million years after Wrangham’s estimated timeframe. Wrangham did what all bold scientists do: he made falsifiable predictions. If it turned out that no evidence of early fires was ever found, his hypothesis could begin looking shaky.

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Glacial till is composed of “foreign” stones that had been transported there by ice. When ice ages were first conceived, a key piece of evidence was “,” which were large stones found far from their place of origin. Erratics found in ocean sediments are called . Eventually, after plenty of controversy, scientists decided that erratics had usually been deposited by glaciers. Oceanic dropstones were deposited by melting icebergs and the land-based erratics by retreating glaciers.

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February 13, 2017part 1 about home and colour

If habilines began to control fire two mya, one thing is certain: the australopithecine Tesla who banged the first rocks together that fashioned a stone tool, and who was able to continue doing it and eventually taught others, probably via active demonstration and their observation, could not have imagined that his/her invention would lead to a relatively giant descendant (or cousin of a descendant) that slept on the ground, controlled fire, and would quickly migrate to the ends of Earth and traverse distances that were incomprehensible in australo-Tesla’s time. That relatively quick series of innovations, never before seen on Earth, gave birth to a creature that would have simply been unrecognizable to that ; it would have appeared magical. There have only been a few subsequent Epochal Events in the human journey, and like the first one(s), they were all energy events above all else, and were all dependent on humans gaining the technological prowess and social organization that enabled them to exploit a new energy source, which was dependent on their increasing mental feats. Each time, the human reality after the Epochal Event was to the humans who lived immediately before it (, , ). Also, the events and their aftermaths became far more dramatic each time, in shrinking the event’s timeframe and shortening the time until the next Epochal Event, and the energy levels greatly increased each time, and by an order of magnitude for the most recent event.

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From the initial appearance of about 2.0-1.8 mya, Europe was periodically buried under the ice sheets that began growing and receding when the first stone tools were made, so tended to appear and disappear in Europe. The fact that humans evolved and spread during an ice age has led to competing hypotheses about many aspects of humanity’s rise. Although , and there have been 17 identified episodes of advancing and retreating ice sheets, particularly in North America and northern Eurasia, the early ones were not as severe, and they did not achieve , as the diagram below shows. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

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Stone tools and the control of fire had energy consequences to the human line far above all other effects. Whether they happened within a few hundred thousand years of each other, or were separated by more than a million years, they were the key technical/mental/social advances in early humanity’s ability to survive on Earth and expand its range to eventually cover the planet.