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But Fox's analysis does not end here. What of the alleged cases of veridical paranormal perceptions in these blind NDErs? While Ring and Cooper recognize the need for corroboration from others of the events NDErs report, and indeed present cases claiming exactly that, Fox notes that "a critical reading of the quality of the data presented reveals the need for caution in accepting them unreservedly" (232). He points out, for instance, that in one case passed on to Ring and Cooper by another NDE researcher, no one appears to have ever followed-up with potential witnesses (232). In another seemingly impressive case, a man who had been blind for 10 years reported an OBE after laying down on a couch where he could see a tie that he was wearing purchased for him by a friend who had never described it to him. The NDEr reported how amazed his friend was when he accurately described the patterns on the tie to her (233). But upon interviewing the friend, Ring and Cooper found that she could not really corroborate his recollection:

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[] My timeline of Pam Reynolds' experience during general anesthesia is derived from Sabom's reported times in and his commentary on this part of this paper. Numbers alone in parentheses indicate page numbers from :

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Although Ring and Rosing view dissociative tendencies as a psychological defense mechanism to "tune out" physical threats to one's well-being while simultaneously opening a door to "alternate realities" (Ring and Rosing 217-218, 231), their hypothetical status as a defense mechanism makes much more sense if OBEs and NDEs do literally involve any form of disembodiment. For instance, both OBErs and NDErs tend to have high rates of absorption—a trait which Irwin notes "might usefully be thought of as a capacity for imaginative involvement" (Irwin, "Disembodied" 263). But whether it is indicative of a to have OBEs and NDEs or simply a of having them, such a correlation makes little sense if something actually leaves the body during such experiences. For why would mechanisms—as opposed to physiological crises alone—trigger the release of the soul? Conversely, why would literal separation from the body make individuals more prone to fantasize?

As the Fenwicks point out, if OBEs and NDEs are hallucinations,

The sight of the physical body from the outside may terminate the experience, ... because of the emotional response (fear, contempt, revulsion) this sight evokes, but also perhaps because attention is diverted back to the body. Another factor commonly bringing an end to the OBE is the physical body's being touched by someone (Irwin, "Introduction" 222).

Veridical Paranormal Perception During OBEs?

Finally, compared to non-OBErs, OBErs tend to have more hallucinatory experiences (McCreery and Claridge, "Personality" 140), perceptual distortions (McCreery and Claridge, "Hallucination" 743), distortions of body image (Murray and Fox 70), illusory experiences of changes in body size, and floating sensations (Blackmore, "Postal" 235). Overall, the best predictors of OBEs are dissociation, hypnotic susceptibility, absorption, and fantasy proneness (Alvarado 193-194).

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Irwin adds that the fact that the vast majority of OBEs are preceded by physical inactivity implies "that a lack of somatic (kinesthetic and proprioceptive) stimulation is an important condition for the OBE" (227). A psychophysiological process makes sense of why some OBEs originate and end due to emotional reactions or the attention given to bodily processes. But if something literally detaches from the body during OBEs, factors should neither trigger its release nor hasten its return.