The Five Levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
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Free Essay Examples and Research Papers | StudyMode
John Burton and Johan Galtung departed quite deliberately from Abraham Maslow's post-Freudian psychology, with its hierarchy of developmental needs seemingly rooted in unacknowledged Western and bourgeois cultural values. But there is some indication that, in extracting basic needs from the mental structures postulated by Freud and his successors, the baby was thrown out with the bath water. In effect, the needs theorists put emotional and cognitive dynamics into a "black box," much as their behaviourist predecessors had done.
In Burton acknowledged his debt to Paul Sites, whose (1973) defined eight essential needs whose satisfaction was required in order to produce "normal" (non-deviant, non-violent) individual behaviour. According to Sites, these included the primary needs for consistency of response, stimulation, security, and recognition, and derivative needs for justice, meaning, rationality, and control. Sites, in turn, recognized the importance of Abraham Maslow's conception of human development as the sequential satisfaction of basic needs, which Maslow (1954) had grouped under five headings: physiological, safety, belongingness/love, esteem, and self-actualisation. The idea that humans qua humans have needs whose satisfaction is the effective antidote to alienation is considerably older than this, of course, as Karl Marx's youthful reflections on Hegel suggest: