Difference between Cytokinesis in Plant and Animal Cells
Lesson plan and activities to achieve the following learning objectives:
1) Describe the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells - starter: guess the organelle from a series of images that make up each syllable
2) Explain the structure and function of all the different organelles that form the eukaryotic cell ultrastructure - label ultracellular structures of an animal; table of structures and functions with core and extension questions where pupils read about one organelle then teach each other; making cells using plasticine; group essay/challenge with 10-mark QWC exam question - mark scheme included
3) Summarise the differences in ultrastructure between plant, animal, fungi and algae cells - homework task to create a table to compare the similarities and differences in the organelles and structures found in plant, animal, algae and fungi
Finishes with a pupil self evaluation task where they reflect on their learning objectives and identify their corresponding grade.
Difference between Animal and Plant …
The ecosystems may not have recovered from Olson’s Extinction of 270 mya, and at 260 mya came another mass extinction that is called the mid-Permian or extinction, or the , although a recent study found only one extinction event, in the mid-Capitanian. In the 1990s, the extinction was thought to result from falling sea levels. But the first of the two huge volcanic events coincided with the event, in . There can be several deadly outcomes of major volcanic events. As with an , massive volcanic events can block sunlight with the ash and create wintry conditions in the middle of summer. That alone can cause catastrophic conditions for life, but that is only one potential outcome of volcanism. What probably had far greater impact were the gases belched into the air. As oxygen levels crashed in the late Permian, there was also a huge carbon dioxide spike, as shown by , and the late-Permian volcanism is the near-unanimous choice as the primary reason. That would have helped create super-greenhouse conditions that perhaps came right on the heels of the volcanic winter. Not only would carbon dioxide vent from the mantle, as with all volcanism, but the late-Permian volcanism occurred beneath Ediacaran and Cambrian hydrocarbon deposits, which burned them and spewed even more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Not only that, great salt deposits from the Cambrian Period were also burned via the volcanism, which created hydrochloric acid clouds. Volcanoes also spew sulfur, which reacts with oxygen and water to form . The oceans around the volcanoes would have become acidic, and that fire-and-brimstone brew would have also showered the land. Not only that, but the warming initiated by the initial carbon dioxide spike could have then warmed up the oceans enough so that methane hydrates were liberated and create even more global warming. Such global warming apparently warmed the poles, which not only melted away the last ice caps and ended an ice age that had , but deciduous forests are in evidence at high latitudes. A 100-million-year Icehouse Earth period ended and a 200-million-year Greenhouse Earth period began, but the transition appears to have been chaotic, with wild swings in greenhouse gas levels and global temperatures. Warming the poles would have lessened the heat differential between the equator and poles and further diminished the lazy Panthalassic currents. The landlocked Paleo-Tethys and Tethys oceans, and perhaps even the Panthalassic Ocean, may have all become superheated and anoxic as the currents died. Huge also happened, which may have and led to ultraviolet light damage to land plants and animals. That was all on top of the oxygen crash. With the current state of research, all of the above events may have happened, in the greatest confluence of life-hostile conditions during the eon of complex life. A recent study suggests that the extinction event that ended the Permian may have lasted only 60,000 years or so. In 2001, a bolide event was proposed for the Permian extinction with great fanfare, but it does not appear to be related to the Permian extinction; the other dynamics would have been quite sufficient. The Permian extinction was the greatest catastrophe that Earth’s life experienced since the previous supercontinent existed in the .
So far, this essay has dealt lightly with regional differences and largely confined the discussion to polar, temperate, and tropical conditions in the seas, and rainforest versus dryer conditions on land. While existed, barriers to species diffusion on land were relatively modest, hence dominance. But at the Triassic’s end, and continental differences in plants and animals often became significant in later times. Although the formation of Pangaea had profound impacts, because land life was relatively young, the differences and resultant changes due to the removal of oceanic barriers were less spectacular than would happen in the distant future, such as when .