Goodbye, dear Edwige, butch elegance, punk legend.
There is : the aspirant is overwhelmed with delusions of grandeur, or planning to become the Bill Gates of FE. , as they play their games of and .
photo of Edwige, Antony and Tilda Swinton NYC 2012 by Chuck Fiorello
However, all that scientists have determined so far for DNA's function is providing the “blueprint” for making proteins. Proteins have , and the science of studies the highly complex way that genes express themselves. DNA provides the foundation for life’s structures, and as with , the FOXP2 gene is highly conserved in humans, which means that it does not change. Similar to , those genes form the foundation of the biological structures built from them, and if the foundation is damaged, the resulting house will be defective. Epigenetics and other factors are important, but if the foundation is sufficiently flawed, the house may not stand at all.
These funds are from the interest on endowment funds given by LCA (Lutheran Church in America) women to the organization; some date back to UELC (United Evangelical Lutheran Church) women. The average award is between $800 and $1,000. Recipient is eligible to reapply and receive assistance for a maximum of two years.
Antony on BBC4's Loose Ends last year
The rise and fall of Rome is an iconic example of the trajectories of preindustrial civilizations. Only so much surplus can be skimmed from economic systems based on the energy of wood, food, and muscle power. I wanted to cover some civilizations in detail to make the pattern clear, and will largely only survey other preindustrial civilizations, as the dynamics were similar, but with some important variations.
baby i'm holding on dear this heart it is a waxwork of echoes
China’s was the second pristine civilization to rise, and although the and separated China from the Fertile Crescent and India, there was cultural and technological diffusion. At times, China was ahead of Fertile Crescent civilizations in technological and cultural innovation. By eight kya, agriculture was firmly established in China. China has had less investigation of its prehistory, but it seems clear that China’s deforestation began with agriculture, just like everyplace else, and by 1000 BCE, China was largely deforested. The East Asian food complex is markedly different from the Fertile Crescent's, largely because East Asia relied on summer monsoons for its water, and winter rains provided water for the Fertile Crescent and westward, although civilizations were primarily based on seed and root crops. The rice paddy is the most sophisticated preindustrial agricultural system ever created. It by 3000 BCE, and rice paddies bred malaria to the extent that the paddy system in southern China was not successful until the local populace had partially adapted to malaria. Deforested lands alternately , and managing water in China became the foundation of imperial practice like nowhere else in history. Although , in practice they did nothing at all. Chinese emperors and the states they controlled, however, owed their legitimacy in their subjects’ eyes to how well they controlled flooding and drainage. The Yellow and Yangtze rivers carried more than 30 times the silt that the Nile did, and deforestation with the resulting flooding, siltation, and desertification have been major Chinese problems for thousands of years. Although it has been challenged, the idea that China reached early political unity due to few geographic barriers has merit. China has been politically unified almost continually for more than two millennia. The Han Chinese that dominate China are like white Americans, Canadians, or Australians, in that they invaded, conquered, and came to dominate lands initially settled by others.
Check out the "Director's Cut" of CUT THE WORLD on over at .
When scientists and scholars discuss , or the demise of , or the , some will always attribute such events to climate change as they deflect responsibility from humans. Climate change has probably never been the ultimate cause for such events. The ultimate cause was probably always humans, and everything else was a proximate cause, at most. In the past several hundred years, there are clear instances when deforestation and sheep grazing quickly turned moist forests and/or , particularly in the kinds of temperate regions where the first civilizations arose. When scientists have investigated and reconstructed the dynamics that led to the collapse of , the , or the Anasazi, the story was always the same. Human civilizations altered the ecosystems, usually via deforestation and agriculture, which made them lose their resilience, and a drought did them in. Those urban areas were permanently abandoned. That civilization-collapse dynamic is like the hypothesis for why mass extinctions have punctuated the eon of complex life: those multi-tiered energy systems .
HAMMER PROJECTS: ANTONY January 22nd-May 13th
After newly exposed forest soils have produced a few crops, the yield will decline due to nutrient depletion. When the croplands receive less precipitation, yields drop. When soils wash away due to erosion, crop yields in those eroded soils will decline. Those effects reduce the EROI and surplus energy of farming those lands. When cropland is abandoned due to aridity, nutrient depletion, and erosion, and lands farther from Rome were conquered, deforested, and farmed, it took more energy to transport those crops to Rome than with farms closer to Rome. That also depressed the EROI and surplus energy. When harbors silted up and needed dredging, or were eventually abandoned and a port was built farther away, that also reduced the EROI and surplus energy of Rome-bound food. When food was used to feed soldiers who traveled increasingly vast distances to conquer and plunder peoples and their lands, those would be lower-EROI ventures than conquests closer to Rome. That dynamic has also been called in academic parlance, but in scientific terms, it is really just sucking the dregs of low-EROI resources after high-EROI energy sources have been depleted. Rome’s decline was really just another resource-depletion dynamic. Humanity’s first one was , and Rome only experienced what , , , , and numerous other early civilizations already suffered. Rome just did it on an unprecedented scale.