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6. Murray A. Straus, Beating the Devil Out of Them: Corporal Punishment in American Families (New York: Lexington Books, 1994), p. 81. He does concede, however, that not all studies have supported the idea that abusive parents use corporal punishment more than nonabusive parents (p. 84).
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I mean here physical injury. To include psychological injury would be to rule out many objections to corporal punishment -- those that suggest that all physical punishment results in psychological injury. I want to reject this view, but by argument rather than stipulation. I am happy to stipulate the absence of physical injury because the claim that all corporal punishment results in such injury is more demonstrably false.
One argument that is intended as an attack on both mild and severe cases of corporal punishment makes the claim that physically punishing people degrades them. I understand degradation to involve a lowering of somebody's standing, where the relevant sense of standing has to do with how others regard one, and how one regards oneself. It is the interplay between the way we understand how others view us and the way that we view ourselves that produces feelings such as shame. Thus one way in which one might be degraded is by being shamed.
16. Straus, Beating the Devil Out of Them, pp. 126-29.
Moreover, not all institutional settings are equally impersonal. Schools are much more personal than state courts. Teachers know their pupils better and are likely to care more for them than judges do for the accuseds that stand before them. Punishment in schools can thus be seen as serving a useful educational purpose. It facilitates the move from the jurisdiction of the family to the jurisdiction of the state, teaching the child that punishment is not always inflicted by close people who love one and know one. This is not to say that teachers, like judges, should not inquire into relevant aspects of a wrongdoer's background before inflicting a severe punishment.
19. Dubanoski et al., "Corporal Punishment in Schools," p. 274.
I do not think that the differences support this conclusion. Institutional punishment can never replicate the close connections of the family situation. That has some disadvantages and some advantages. One of the advantages is that the judgment of behavior and decision about punishment will not be blinded by love. (How many parents would sentence their homicidal offspring to lengthy prison terms? -- "He's a good boy really!")
24. Hyman et al., "Paddling, Punishing and Force," p. 19.
The goal of Sudoku is to fill in a 9×9 grid with digits so that each column, row, and 3×3 section contain the numbers between 1 to 9. At the beginning of the game, the 9×9 grid will have some of the squares filled in. Your job is to use logic to fill in the missing digits and complete the grid. Don’t forget, a move is incorrect if:
27. Graeme Newman, (New York: Macmillan, 1983), p. 43.
Sudoku is a fun puzzle game once you get the hang of it. At the same time, learning to play Sudoku can be a bit intimidating for beginners. So, if you are a complete beginner, here are a few Sudoku tips that you can use to improve your Sudoku skills.